By C.L. Sheng
1.1 Utilitarian Theories This e-book is a monograph on ethical philosophy and social philosophy, really the a part of the philosophy of economics that's concerning the overall distribution challenge. It provides a finished moral idea, including an program of the speculation to distributive justice. the perspective of this idea is utilitarian. although, this idea is assorted in a few the most important issues, in addition to in minor info, from all current different types of utilitarianism. ethical philosophy offers primarily with the ethical judgment of activities, i. e., no matter if an ethical motion is true or incorrect, solid or undesirable. The judgment is mostly in line with a line of logical reasoning, which are traced to a last cause referred to as the justification or final precept. a moral idea is a self-consistent process equipped upon a uncomplicated, or final, precept. An final precept can by no means be carefully confirmed, and isn't particular. varied philosophers identify diverse moral theories upon diverse rules. as a result, within the background of improvement of ethical philosophy, there were various moral theories and faculties. Even wi skinny an identical college having a similar final precept, assorted philosophers could have varied models of the idea, due to small adaptations within the interpretation of the last word precept or within the elaboration of the details.
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Extra info for A New Approach to Utilitarianism: A Unified Utilitarian Theory and Its Application to Distributive Justice
Moreover, some applied studies tend to be more or less "technical" in nature rather than philosophical. For instance, utility functions and social welfare functions have been studied intensively and extensively by economists and management scientists, but their studies are "technical" in that they are interested not so much in value judgment as in the analysis of personal preferences and the mathematical properties of utility functions. Thus, it is seen that there have not been as many intensive studies in normative ethics as in meta-ethics and in applied ethics.
A controversial key point in the study of distribution is whether the problem of maximization of utility and that of the optimization of distribution are two separate problems, independent of each other or are interrelated and interdependent. Jan Narveson expresses his doubt regarding the independence of two separate principles by complaining that "What Frankena, Carritt, and other critics regard as two independent factors, 1. , 'quantity' and 'quality of distribution' of utility, are not independent in the way supposed.
Without a norm or a well-accepted ethical theory, these applied studies seem to be superficial and rootless. This difficulty is sharply felt nowadays, as is reflected in Andrew Altman's recent paper. Altman points out that there are "two distinct and inconsistent philosophical bases upon which applied ethics may rest. One of the bases emerges from a traditional philosophical approach to normative questions; the other emerges from a method that was conceived of in opposition to that traditional approach: pragmatism.
A New Approach to Utilitarianism: A Unified Utilitarian Theory and Its Application to Distributive Justice by C.L. Sheng